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To your religion and you will Karen nationalism, discover Gravers, ‘The fresh new to make away from a beneficial Karen nation’

To your religion and you will Karen nationalism, discover Gravers, ‘The fresh new to make away from a beneficial Karen nation’

twenty-eight Get a hold of Renard , Ronald D. , ‘ The latest role of one’s Karens from inside the Thai area at the beginning of Bangkok several months, 1782–1873 ‘, Efforts so you can Asian Studies , fifteen ( 1980 ): 15 – twenty eight Bing Student ; Renard , Ronald D. , ‘New integration regarding Karen during the north Thai governmental existence in nineteenth century’, during the Anuson Walter Vella , ed. Renard , Ronald D. ( Honolulu : College or university of Hawai’i Drive , 1986 ), pp. 229 –48Google Pupil ; and Sarasawadee, History of Lanna.

30 Centered on Keyes , Charles , ‘ Millennialism, Theravada Buddhism, and you may Thai area ‘, Diary out of Far eastern Knowledge , thirty six , 2 ( 1977 ): 283 – 302 Google College student , signs of your own king and the Buddha try linked in traditions and you will legitimise one another king and you may rebel Phu Mi Bun otherwise coming queen. Come across as well as Wilson , Constance M. , ‘ The Holy Guy on reputation for Thailand and you may Laos ‘, Record out of Southeast Western Training , twenty eight , dos ( 1997 ): 345 –64CrossRefGoogle Student .

Regal claims was in fact segmentary options considering tributary and you will marriage associations, which is, private networking sites in which rebellion and fragmentation commonly taken place

31 Falla , Jonathan , True love and you can Bartholomew: Rebels for the Burmese edging ( Cambridge : Cambridge College or university Press , 1991 )CrossRefGoogle Student . On the picture of the newest orphan, discover Hayami , Yoko , ‘ Karen traditions considering Christ otherwise Buddha: New implications from several reinterpretations to have a fraction cultural classification in Thailand ‘, Journal out of Southeast Far eastern Degree , twenty-seven , dos ( 1996 ): 334 –49CrossRefGoogle College student ; getting recent Pwo Karen orphan stories, see Hinton , Elisabeth , Oldest brother’s story: Stories of your own Pwo Karen ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Guides , 1999 )Bing Scholar .

30 Po , San C. , Burma as well as the Karens ( London : Elliot Inventory , 1928 )Google Beginner . San C. Po is a prominent Karen political leader. Hovemyr , Anders , Selecting the new Karen king ( Uppsala : Studia Missionaria Uppsaliensia , 1989 )Bing Scholar , emphasised the new Karen mind-identification because underprivileged orphans, however with a feeling of moral quality. Although not, his source are primarily missionary messages, leading to a relatively biased interpretation.

Gravers , Mikael ( Copenhagen : NIAS Push , 2007 ), pp

thirty two The fresh poems was trans. because of the missionary Mason , Francis and you can printed in ‘ Way of living of one’s Karen ‘, Baptist Missionary Mag (Missionary Sign in) , fourteen ( 1834 ): 382 –93Google Scholar ; as well as in Mason , Ellen B. , Civilizing hill guys ( London area : James Nisbet & Co , 1862 )Yahoo Beginner . My stress.

33 Get a hold of Gravers , , ‘Cosmology, prophets and you can rebellion’, and you can ‘Conversion and title: The formation of Karen cultural term for the Burma’, into the Investigating ethnic range from inside the Burma , ed. 227 –58Google Scholar , for a serious analysis of missionary perceptions from Karen cosmology.

34 Towards the concepts, discover Aung-Thwin , Michael , ‘Divinity, spirit, human: Conceptions out-of classical Burmese kingship’, in the Stores, signs, and you can hierarchies: Essays towards the traditional states out of The southern area of China , ed. Gesick , Lorraine ( The latest Sanctuary : Yale College or university The southern area of Asia Education , Monograph twenty six, 1983 )Yahoo Student . To own a fine talk of the mandala layout, select Chutintaranond , Sunait , Into each party of the Tenasserim diversity: Reputation of Siamese Burmese affairs ( Bangkok : Chulalongkorn University, Institute regarding Far-eastern Degree , Monograph 50, 1995 )Bing College student https://kissbrides.com/indian-women/bally/.

thirty five There are lots of most other denominations into the Burma and you will Thailand based on a single suggestions but with ritual differences eg Du Wae, Lu Wa and you can Wi Maung. See Harsh, ‘Ariya plus the Wonderful Book’; Gravers, ‘Cosmology, prophets and you will rebellion’; Andersen , Kirsten Ewers , ‘ A couple local Karen religious denominations ‘, Individuals , 23 ( 1981 ): 251 –61Google Scholar ; Yoko Hayami, ‘Stupas and relationships vows: Buddhist and you will sectarian techniques into the Karen state’ (Kyoto: College or university of Kyoto, CSEAS Operating paper no. 8, G-COR collection six, 2008), p. 35; and you can Kwanchewan, ‘Characters of contestation’. Into the Talakhoung (Ta-la-ku) path, select Buadaeng , Kwanchewan , ‘Building and you may keeping the new Ta-la-ku community: This new Karen over the Thai–Myanmar border’, in the Imagining communities during the Thailand: Ethnographic steps , ed. Tanabe , Shigeharu ( Chiang Mai : Mekong Push , 2008 ), pp. 83 – 106 Bing Beginner .

作者: 张群峰



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